Nutrition Unscrambled

ENC’s Protein Webinar TOMORROW! Register Today!

By Marcia Greenblum, MS, RD
August 30th, 2011

What if starting your day with the right breakfast helped you and your clients control weight better without hunger?  For years we have heard that protein is important for dieters but new research suggests it is the timing and the quality of the protein that really matters. Dr. Donald K. Layman has uncovered the role specific amino acids can have on permanent weigh loss, the most important of these amino acids  for adults is leucine. Dr Layman has discovered that consuming the right balance of leucine at meals will determine the health of muscles and lead to permanent weight loss. To get the right balance of leucine , protein intake must be distributed evenly through out the day and redesigning breakfast to be a greater source of protein may just be the most important tool in our quest for a satisfying and healthful weight loss solution.

Join us for an exciting webinar on August  31st when Dr. Layman will explain his research and Eileen Behan, RD will provide real food solutions for putting the research into practice .    

This webinar has been approved for 1.5 continuning education credits thruogh ADA, AANP and ACSM.  Pending credits from AAPA.

Register here today!

IDEA World of Fitness Conference

By Marcia Greenblum, MS, RD
August 19th, 2011

health fitness

Last week I had the opportunity to exhibit for the Egg Nutrition Center at the IDEA World of Fitness conference. This is the first foray the Egg Nutrition Center has made into communicating with the fitness and personal trainer profession. We recognize that with increased awareness of the importance of exercise for improved health, weight control and strength in aging, the personal trainer community has often been asked to be a resource about good nutrition. We learned earlier this year from a focus group that we conducted with personal trainers, that the personal trainer scope of practice does not include nutrition counseling although they share a strong interest in nutrition as it relates to health and body composition. However, since the exercise and fitness profession is seen by many as a good role model of healthy living, we felt it was important to reach out to this professional group with accurate information about eggs and overall nutrition.

Our observations from our focus group with personal trainers were reinforced at the IDEA World of Fitness Conference exhibit when many attendees stopped by showing interest in learning more about eggs and the many nutritional benefits of egg intake. The people I met were genuinely enthusiastic about eating eggs and were pleased to learn that including an egg yolk in their multiple egg white meal would offer so many vitamin and mineral benefits. We talked about the additional benefits of satiety to keep from hunger during long practices and the role of amino acid leucine that signals muscle synthesis making eggs a good protein source after exercise. Many attendees also wanted to know more about the benefits of additional nutrients in specialty eggs such as enhanced content of lutein, omega-3 fatty acids and choline. I was pleased that most people who came to our booth had a basic knowledge about the eye health benefits of lutein, the infant brain development benefits of choline as well as the cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 fatty acids but wanted to know more because they were already convinced that eggs were an inexpensive source of high quality protein.

In fact, this group of exercise enthusiasts serves as a wonderful example of how eating eggs, while maintaining a healthy body weight and exercising regularly, can reduce the risk of most chronic disease.

Receive Continuing Education at ENC’s FREE Protein Webinar: 8/31

By Marcia Greenblum, MS, RD
August 17th, 2011

What if starting your day with the right breakfast helped you and your clients control weight better without hunger?  For years we have heard that protein is important for dieters but new research suggests it is the timing and the quality of the protein that really matters. Dr. Donald K. Layman has uncovered the role specific amino acids can have on permanent weigh loss, the most important of these amino acids  for adults is leucine. Dr Layman has discovered that consuming the right balance of leucine at meals will determine the health of muscles and lead to permanent weight loss. To get the right balance of leucine , protein intake must be distributed evenly through out the day and redesigning breakfast to be a greater source of protein may just be the most important tool in our quest for a satisfying and healthful weight loss solution.

Join us for an exciting webinar on August  31st when Dr. Layman will explain his research and Eileen Behan, RD will provide real food solutions for putting the research into practice .    

This webinar has been approved for 1.5 continuning education credits thruogh ADA, AANP and ACSM.  Pending credits from AAPA.

Register here today!

Ken Anderson Study: Free Range versus Cage

By Mitch Kanter, Ph.D.
August 15th, 2011

The nutritional value of free-range versus cage-produced shell eggs has been a source of ongoing controversy in recent years. Many websites and other publications have touted the health benefits of eggs from free-range birds. However, the fact of the matter is that little scientific evidence exists to support this assertion. And a recent publication by Dr. Ken Anderson from North Carolina State University (Poultry Science 90:1600-1608, 2011) bears this out. Dr. Anderson looked at the fat, cholesterol, and vitamin content of eggs from free-range birds versus conventional cage birds. And his data indicated no difference in the cholesterol content of the eggs (163 mg per large egg for the caged birds; 165 mg per large egg for free-range birds). Similarly, the vitamin A and E content of the eggs were not affected by the conditions to which the birds were exposed. In fact, the total fat content of the free-range birds’ eggs was actually higher than that of the caged birds (the authors hypothesized that this may have been due to the relatively high-fat insects that the free-range hens had access to). A recent study in Europe (Hidalgo et al., Food Chem 106:1031-1038, 2008) demonstrated similar results (free-range eggs no better than caged hen eggs).

 No doubt that this debate will continue, largely because it is so tinged with emotion. But science, well done, is free of emotion. And current science doesn’t support the notion that the manner in which laying hens are raised can impact the nutritional quality of the eggs they produce. In fact, raising birds in a more controlled environment offers the ability to better control the diet, thus raising the potential for creating even more healthy egg products in the future.

To read more, please see the press release the Poultry Science Association put out with Ken Anderson.


Refrigerator Food Safety

By Marcia Greenblum, MS, RD
August 10th, 2011

Hi Readers – here is a post from one of our Registered Dietitan Advisors, Mary Lee Chin, on refrigerator food safety.

~ Marcia

It’s enough to make you lose your appetite. Americans are getting fed up and throwing in their napkins. From pathogens to product recalls, food safety is among the top of Americans food concerns. Many perceive a lack of control, at the mercy of food producers and manufacturers to safely feed their families.  And while high-profile food recalls alarm the public, it is also important that consumers realize that foodborne illnesses can start in private homes –and at rates three times more frequently  than in commercial operations.  Much of the problem is the result of improper storage, unsafe food handling, lack of cleanliness and poor refrigerator maintenance.

So during these hot summer months, take a look at some simple tips to help maintain refrigerator food safety.

Correct settings: Always have a refrigerator thermometer to check settings –They can be purchased for as little as$15.00.  Improper storage temps among major factors contributing to food spoilage and microbial growth. Studies have shown that a majority of Americans have no idea what their refrigerator temperature is, and many confuse the thermostat with the thermometer. Read your owner’s manual!  A recommended temperature is below 40 degree F. Consumer home refrigeration practices: Results of a Web-based Survey, J. of Food Protection, July 2007.

Maintain safety practices: Do not over-stuff the refrigerator.  Cold air must circulate to help keep food safe. Over purchases can crash your grocery cart, wasting money on extra food that spoils before eaten, and then must be discarded

Cool foods quickly: The key is to cool hot food quickly to prevent bacteria growth. Bacteria find a very welcome environment  to grow in the  of 41ºF -140ºF temperature range. Food should be cooled to 41ºF or lower as quickly as possible. For example place large quantities of hot food in shallow stainless steel containers or in an ice bath to cool quickly, then refrigerate.

Check door seals: Close door and tug gently. There should be some resistance. If it opens easily, something is wrong with seal. Over time door seals can become dry and cracked, allowing condensation to build up, and temperature variances creating condensation, mold and inconsistent temperatures. Look for mold in crevices which is indication of faulty door seals. Don’t stuff refrigerator so much that cannot let door swing shut on own and does not properly close.  If need to replace, look for seal replacement instructions on manufacturer’s website.

Clean the refrigerator: Sounds obvious, but…….Once a week or immediately before going grocery shopping, take inventory of the contents of your refrigerator. Remove outdated foods promptly. More than three out of five Americans say they wait for food to taste, look or smell bad instead of checking the expiration date. The expiration date or “use by” date is the date by which food should be used or frozen to ensure quality and consistency — and it should be followed. Remove all food and store in a cooler while you are cleaning. Wiping up spills as they happen will keep your refrigerator clean, and help it to be odor -free. To rid fridge of offensive odors, add a cup of baking soda to a bowl or plate and place inside refrigerator for 24-hours. Remove and properly dispose of baking soda when done.

 Ice maker or a water dispenser:   Water filters needs to be changed regularly. Replace filter every six months or as recommended by the owner’s manual.

Leftovers: Date leftovers and keep some masking tape and a pen in your kitchen to make it easier. Do not leave leftovers on your kitchen counter for longer than two hours. In hot weather (90°F or above), leftovers should be refrigerated promptly. Seal or cover all containers to avoid absorbing or contributing to refrigerator odors. If you are not going to eat leftovers within 2-3 days, seal in freezer wrap, date and freeze at 0 degrees.

  • Doggie bag diners – Bringing home a doggie bag is a good way to exercise portion and calorie control, but remember to handle safely. You already have the time that the food sat on your plate while you finished dessert, and then the trip home. Remove food from the bag (decreasing the insulation) write date on your take-out container – and remember to eat or discard within three days. American Dietetic Association

Leftovers Keeps Up To
Cooked fresh vegetables 3-4 days
Cooked pasta 3-5 days
Cooked rice 1 week
Deli counter meats 5 days
Meat:    Ham, cooked and sliced    Hot dogs, opened    Lunch meats, prepackaged, opened    Cooked beef, pork, poultry, fish and meat casseroles    Cooked patties and nuggets, gravy and broth 3-4 days 1 week 3-5 days 3-4 days 1-2 days
Seafood, cooked 2 days
Soups and stews 3-4 days
Stuffing 1-2 days

 Refrigerator Door: Refrigerator doors are consistently warmer than other areas of the fridge due to frequent opening of the refrigerator door. Don’t keep milk cartons on the door. According to American Egg Board, fresh eggs can be stored in their cartons at a constant temperature of 40 degrees F for 4-5 weeks beyond carton’s packing date. Many built-in egg trays are on the door where most likely warmer temperatures are. Newer refrigerator models have the egg tray inside the refrigerator, where it is colder more consistently. Keep eggs in their carton to guard against breakage and odor absorption and helps to prevent moisture loss which lowers egg quality. Fresh eggs, in their shell, will last 3-5 weeks. Hard-boiled eggs can last a week in the refrigerator (in or out of the shell)

 Dairy Products American Dietetic Association

Discard all kinds of milk (whole, 2 percent, skim, etc.) after the container has been opened one week of opening, no matter what the “sell-by” date is. Use yogurt within 7-10 days after buying it. Hard cheese, like cheddar, Gouda, Edam, and Swiss, can last for 3 to 4 weeks tightly wrapped in the refrigerator after opening.

The softer the cheese, the shorter the shelf life

  • Cream cheese can last for 2 weeks
  • Cottage cheese can last for 10 to 30 days
  • Ricotta cheese can last for 5 days

Vegetable bin Don’t purchase produce with mold, bruises or cuts –bacteria can thrive in those places and buy only the amount that you will use within a week. Vegetable bins are the places most likely to be contaminated as raw fruits and vegetables can become contaminated along the farm-to-table continuum. Produce used for salads – lettuce and spinach, for example – grow low to the ground, where they are likely to come in contact with contaminated fertilizers. For best safety, place washed produce into clean storage containers, not back into the original ones. Refrigerate fresh produce within two hours of peeling or cutting. Toss leftover cut produce that is left at room temperature for more than two hours and discard cooked vegetables after 3 days .

Meats and fruits in separate compartments: Keep raw meats and ready-to eat foods separate; juices from raw meats or germs can cause cross-contamination to cooked or ready-to-eat foods (such lettuces or fruit). Store or thaw raw meats, poultry and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator so juices don’t drip onto other foods. When thawing meat, place on paper towel on top of a dish to catch dripping meat juices. Throw away ground meats, sausage and organ meats after 2 days . Freeze meats in freezer-safe wrap at 0°. Cooked meats should be eaten or frozen within 3 days.

 Resources The American Dietetic Association

School Meals Boost Nutrition and Learning

By Marcia Greenblum, MS, RD
August 5th, 2011

Hi Readers!  Today we have one of our Registered Dietitian Advisors, Neva Cochran, blogging.  Enjoy!


I recently read an article online from the UK Daily Mail titled, “Jamie Oliver health crusade leads to fewer pupils eating school meals.” It seems the popular British chef and TV personality has not achieved the desired result from his campaign to improve the nutritional quality of England’s school meals that he deemed unhealthy.

According to the article, more than half of primary and two-thirds of secondary school students are rejecting Oliver’s “healthier” menus. Participation in school lunch is below the level it was prior to his intervention: 44.1% of English primary school kids and 37.6% of those in secondary schools ate school meals this year compared to 44.9% for both in 2004. His attempt to bring his crusade to this side of the Atlantic has been met with resistance from school districts. And, in my opinion, that’s a good thing because school meals in the U.S. are one of the best nutritional bargains around.

In July, I attended the annual national conference of the School Nutrition Association, working in an exhibit booth for one of my clients. This meeting in Nashville attracted over 3,000 school nutrition professionals ranging from registered dietitian directors of large metropolitan school district nutrition programs to women and men who work on the front lines, preparing and serving meals to kids in big city and small town schools across the country.

These are some of the most dedicated, passionate and caring individuals I’ve met in all of the many areas of dietetics practice I’ve encountered in 30+ years as an RD. And what they do is amazing. School meals must meet strict USDA nutrition guidelines for calories, fat, sodium, vitamins and minerals as well as standards for food safety. Average reimbursements rates of only about $1.60 for breakfast and $2.75 for lunch must cover food, labor, supplies and equipment costs. This is no easy feat and they do it with a positive attitude and great concern and care for the students they serve.

School meal programs increasingly serve more nutrient-rich foods and beverages, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and lean proteins according to the “Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services” published in November 2010. So rather than being the problem, school nutrition programs are the solution to providing nutritious meals and combating childhood obesity, as the results of several recent studies attest:

  • Consumption of school meals is positively related to children’s intakes of key food groups at lunch and breakfast
  • School meal program participation is associated with reduced prevalence of nutrient inadequacy.
  • School lunch participants eat fewer calorie-dense foods than nonparticipants. In fact, calorie density is highest when kids eat at locations away from home and school.
  • Participating in a school breakfast program improves daily nutrient intake and better nutrient intake is associated with significantly improved academic performance and decreased hunger.
  •  School breakfast programs improve attendance rates and decrease tardiness and, among the most undernourished children, school breakfast improves academic performance and the ability to learn.
  • There is no evidence that school breakfast or lunch programs contribute to rising rates of childhood obesity. In fact, school breakfast participation was associated with a significantly lower BMI. School breakfast participation may be a protective factor, by encouraging students to consume breakfast more regularly.

Bottom line: school meals are a great deal for kids both nutritionally and economically. They go hand-in-hand with promoting a healthy body and healthy mind that helps students feel, perform and learn better.

Increased Dietary Protein & Breakfast Consumption-Effects on Appetite, Satiety, and Reward-driven Eating Behavior

By Mitch Kanter, Ph.D.
August 4th, 2011

Hi Readers -  I’m honored to let you know that Dr. Heather Leidy is blogging today regarding research .

- Mitch

Two key forces exist which act against our desire to be healthy and manage body weight.  First, we have internal ‘physiological’ signals which respond to energy restriction, dieting, and weight loss and lead to increased hunger and reductions in fullness (satiety).   Many individuals respond to these signals and eat in excess, leading to the prevention of sustained weight loss and/or obesity.  We are also constantly bombarded by the modern food environment containing food-centered advertisements and easy access to highly palatable, energy dense, sugar-laden snacks.  This type of environment shifts our eating away from physiological need towards reward-driven over-eating. 

To add to the problem, many Americans follow unhealthy dietary practices further intensifying these behaviors.  One in particular is the now-common habit of skipping breakfast which is strongly associated with over-eating/snacking (especially in the evening), weight gain, and obesity.  Fortunately, there are several dietary strategies that have been implemented to target and prevent both types of eating behavior.  These include increased dietary protein and breakfast consumption.

We’ve published several articles focusing on the beneficial effects of a modest increase in protein intake (1-4).   Through these studies, we found that an increase in protein consumption from 15% of daily intake to 25-30% of intake leads to improvements in appetite control and satiety(1-4).  In fact, a higher protein diet, containing lean meat and eggs, leads to increased fullness throughout the day and reduced desire to eat and preoccupation with thoughts of food throughout the evening hours compared to a normal protein diet—even during weight loss(1,3).   It is quite clear that a diet containing an increase in dietary protein, still well-within the dietary guidelines, is beneficial for appetite control. 

Based on this data as well as the negative outcomes associated with breakfast skipping, we are now focusing on the daily addition of a protein-rich breakfast in those who skip the morning meal.  We recently report that  skipping breakfast leads to greater hunger and reduced satiety (i.e., fullness) throughout the morning hours, leading to a greater amount of food consumed at lunch time compared to a normal protein breakfast5.  We also found that eating a higher protein breakfast (38% of the meal as high quality dairy and egg protein, 49 g) leads to even greater benefits by further reducing appetite and subsequent food intake.   

In our most recent study6, we focused on whether breakfast would actually alter food-related brain activation known to stimulate reward-driven eating behavior.  In this study, ‘breakfast skippers’ consumed meals containing either normal quantities of protein or higher protein (i.e., 40% of the meal as dairy and egg protein).  Compared to breakfast skipping, the consumption of both types of breakfast meals led to reductions in brain activation patterns in regions controlling appetite, motivation to eat, and food reward.  The higher protein breakfast led to even greater reductions in these activations compared to the normal protein breakfast.  These data suggest that incorporating a healthy breakfast containing protein-rich foods may be a simple dietary strategy to improve appetite control and prevent over-eating.


1Leidy HJ, et al.  2007  Higher protein intake preserves lean mass & satiety with weight loss in pre-obese & obese women.  Obesity 15:421-429.

2Leidy HJ, et al.   2007 Effects of acute & chronic protein intake on metabolism, appetite & ghrelin during weight loss. Obesity.  15:1215-25.

3Leidy HJ, et al.  2011 The effects of consuming frequent, higher protein meals on appetite and satiety during weight loss in overweight/obese men.  Obesity; 19 (4):  818-824.

4Leidy HJ, et al.  2010 The influence of higher protein intake and greater eating frequency on appetite control in overweight and obese men.  Obesity;  18(9):  1725-1732.

5Leidy HJ & Racki EM.  2010  The addition of a protein-rich breakfast and its effects on acute appetite control and food intake in `breakfast-skipping’ adolescents.  International Journal of Obesity.  34(7):  1125-1133.

6Leidy HJ, et al. 2011 Neural responses to visual food stimuli after normal vs. higher protein breakfast in breakfast-skipping teens-a pilot fMRI study.  Obesity; EPUB ahead of Print.  doi:10.1038/oby.2011.108

New Research: Eggs and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

By Mitch Kanter, Ph.D.
August 3rd, 2011

In a recent blog post I mentioned the symposium that the Egg Nutrition Center recently coordinated at the Experimental Biology meetings in Washington DC that looked at the implications of dietary cholesterol intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. I mentioned that the four symposium speakers, all of whom are experts in cardiovascular health and disease, concluded that the scientific literature does not generally support the relationship between cholesterol intake, serum cholesterol, and heart disease risk for the majority of the population. And a study recently published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition by a group from Spain (Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in the SUN Project).bears this out.  

The researchers correlated egg consumption with the incidence of CVD in 14,000 Mediterranean subjects. Subjects were categorized as non-egg consumers, <1 egg/wk, 1 egg/wk, 2-4 eggs/wk, and >4 eggs/wk. In short, no association was found between egg consumption and the incidence of CVD. In light of a number of recent research findings indicating that dietary cholesterol does not appear to be as unhealthy as previously thought, these results were not surprising. But for many, results like these do represent a break from “traditional’ (at least for the past 40 years or so) ways of thinking about the diet/disease relationship. Newer studies increasingly indicate that some dietary fats may not be as unhealthy as previously thought, and that some fats may actually carry health benefits. Other studies suggest that we eat more protein, and cut back on carbohydrate intake (particularly refined carbs and sugars) to help to ensure optimal health. The nutrition research landscape is ever-changing as our understanding about specific foods and diet patterns evolves. Keep your eyes and ears open. In the nutrition world, it’s easy to learn something new every day!


Nutrition Unscrambled  is written by nutrition experts with the Egg Nutrition Center, which is funded by the American Egg Board. It is monitored and maintained by the public relations agency of record. The mission of the Egg Nutrition Center is to be a credible source of nutrition and health science information and the acknowledged leader in research and education related to eggs. For more information, click here.

About the Bloggers

Mitch Kanter, Ph.D. is the Executive Director of the Egg Nutrition Center. For more information about
Mitch, click here.
Marcia Greenblum, MS, RD is the Senior Director, Nutrition Education at the Egg Nutrition Center. For more information about Marcia, click here.
Anna Shlachter, MS, RD, LDN is the Program Manager, Nutrition Research and Communications at the Egg Nutrition Center. For more information about Anna, click here.

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All information provided within this blog is for informational and educational purposes only and it is not to be construed as medical advice or instruction. Please consult your physician or a qualified health professional on any matters regarding your health or before making changes to your diet or health behaviors.